cancer and mind

A Mind-Body Approach to Cancer Recovery – Part 2

cancer vlog

Successful Survivorship

This is a recording of our first Facebook Live event for Successful Survivorship. My hope is to create a weekly event where you and I get to meet one another for the purpose of support and community. If you do know someone who can benefit from this resource please point them in this direction.

 

cancer stress

Can Stress Really Impact Your Immune System?

cancer stressAccording to the scientific study of Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) the answer is yes. But we are humans, living in an amazing complex body where most things can be not only black or white but where there’s many shades of gray.

To begin with Stress is a subjective phenomenon. Generally speaking though, it is accepted that stress is a state of mental tension and worry caused by problems in your life, work, etc.

To make things a little less simple, there is “good stress” and “bad stress”. Good stress is deemed “good” because it can give an extra boost of energy or alertness to increase performance. Bad stress is stress that is unrelenting and can be detrimental to mental and physical health. Chronic stress is good stress gone bad if you will; when the fight or flight response does not turn off once the threat is over. 1

So how does stress weaken your immune system?

Chronic stress creates high levels of hormones like cortisol and other corticosteroids, which, if persisting over a long period of time  can impact us both mentally and physically. People who suffer from chronic stress may experience mental issues including: anxiety, depression, and sleep issues. Physical symptoms can range from high blood pressure and heart disease to digestive issues and a weakened immune system.

The immune system is comprised of organs, tissues, cells, and cell products that work together to fight harmful pathogens that cause infection and disease. There are two ways that stress has a direct, negative effect on the immune system. It can create chronic inflammation and lower the immunity of those who otherwise might have a healthy immune system. 1

Excess cortisol

Cortisol suppresses inflammation during a stress response, but if cortisol stays in the blood for long periods, the body can develop a resistance and will not respond to it properly. Instead, the body will increase production of substances that promote inflammation causing chronic inflammation in the body that can eventually lead to autoimmune diseases, chronic conditions, acute illnesses, and lengthy healing times. 1

Here are a few examples of how stress can influence the immune system:

  • Bereavement

It’s common to hear stories of recently bereaved spouses who die soon after their partner. One study followed 95,647 recently widowed individuals and found that during the first week after bereavement, mortality was twice the expected rate.

  • The digestive system

There is an association between sustained stress and the onset of symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome.

  • Cancer

A patient’s outlook and his/her quantity and quality of psychological support can impact the outcome of that person’s disease.

  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)

Studies show how elevated levels of stress combined with diminished social support can accelerate the progression of the HIV infection.

  • Longer wound healing time
  • Increased levels of fear or distress before surgery can create longer hospital stays, more postoperative complications, and higher rates of re-hospitalization. A study on patients with chronic lower leg wounds found that those who had higher levels of anxiety and depression showed considerably delayed healing. 2

How do our thoughts influence the immune system?

There is a science that studies the interaction between psychological processes and how these affect the body’s nervous and immune systems. It’s called psychoneuroimmunology or PNI for short. PNI takes into account many of the body’s systems and how they are interconnected combining:

  • Behavioral medicine
  • Endocrinology
  • Genetics
  • Immunology
  • Infectious diseases
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry
  • Psychology
  • Physiology
  • Molecular biology
  • Neuroscience
  • Rheumatology

PNI looks at the entire body and how all the systems function in tandem with one another to provide the patient with whole body care. 3

If you have questions about how PNI can help you deal with the stress of cancer treatments, please feel free to contact me now by email free@avinoamlerner.com or phone 617.564.0707.

1 https://adrenalfatiguesolution.com/stress-immune-system/

2 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/305921.php

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychoneuroimmunology

cancer anxiety

How to Reduce Anticipatory Anxiety During Cancer Treatment

cancer anxietyFacing the unknown of cancer treatment, it is only natural to experience fear and anxiety. Our mind, in an attempt to make sense of what’s ahead, can come up with all kinds of worst-case scenarios, which deplete and depress us. It is therefore vital that we cultivate resilience and strengthen our support system so we can effectively avoid the pitfall of anticipatory anxiety.

Anticipatory anxiety is where a person experiences increased levels of anxiety by thinking about an event or situation in the future.

Interestingly enough in a research study, highly anxious chemotherapy patients suffered twice as much “anticipatory nausea” (18.1%) than the mildly anxious patients did (9.8%).1 Our brains have a tendency to run non-stop like a hamster in a wheel or a chattering monkey. Fortunately there are patterns and behaviors you can learn to combat these negative thoughts and feelings.

Distorted thinking can perpetuate the fear of cancer treatments. Following are a few examples of how thinking can become distorted. See if you can relate to any of these:

  • All-or-nothing thinking: Seeing things in the extreme. You may think, “If I even start to feel nauseous I’m stopping all treatment.”
  • Overgeneralization: One negative occurrence gets applied it to everything in life. “Why does this always happen to me?” When in reality it hasn’t happened but a few times.
  • Disqualifying the positive: Rejecting positive experiences by insisting that they’re flukes. The opposite of over generalization. “That almost never happens!”

Change Your Thinking

We are, in part, products of our environment. This means that some of our thought processes are learned. Therefore when these thoughts are not benefiting us we can learn new ways to cope. Here are a few that will help with anticipatory anxiety:

  • Behavior therapy attempts to identify and eventually change unhealthy behaviors. Our behaviors are learned. They are reactions to what happens to us. It’s possible to “unlearn” these behaviors to possess better coping skills.
  • Biofeedback can teach you to you use the power of your thoughts to control your body. You’re connected to electrical sensors that give you information about your body so by making subtle changes, such as relaxing certain muscles, you can achieve the desired results such as reduced pain, less nausea, and/or dizziness.
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy, or CBT, helps people become aware of their negative interpretations. Many times people may not even realize they interpret situations in a negative way. CBT can help people develop more positive ways of thinking, which can reduce psychological distress.
  • Hypnosis, when used as an adjunct therapy to medical treatment, can help in numerous ways. It can help improve patients attitude toward treatment, improve their outlook and even improve their immune response by addressing past life events and trauma shown by the scientific study of Psychoneuroimmunology to suppress the immune system. It can further help resolve and modify destructive behaviors such smoking cessation, curb food intake of sugar and overall improve treatment outcome by addressing treatment side effects so that patients can complete their treatment regiment.
  • Progressive muscle relaxation focuses on slowly tensing and then relaxing each muscle group. This action helps the patient focus on the difference between muscle tension and relaxation. One method is to start with the muscles in your toes and tense then relax them. Do this throughout your entire body all the up to your head. You can also start with your head and neck and work down to your toes. Imagine that when you relax the muscle, all that tension flows out of your body. When you are fearful this gives you something else to focus on and helps you feel the stress in your muscles and then let it go.

Behaviors can change over time with practice. This is not a quick fix but will give you the tools you need to cope with anticipatory anxiety and other challenges you face in life. If you have questions on these treatments, how they are performed, and how they can help you, please contact me right now by email free@avinoamlerner.com or phone 617.564.0707.

1 http://www.drlarrylachman.com/people/the-psychology-of-chemotherapy.php